OUR PRODUCTS
PHENOL
Phenol is a versatile industrial organic Chemical. The largest end use of Phenol is in Phenol-formaldehyde resins used in wood additives as well as moulding and laminating resins, paints, varnishes and enamels.
Phenol which is also referred to as Carbolic Acid, or Monohydroxy Benzene is used to produce a wide variety of chemical intermediates, including Phenolic Resins, Bisphenol-A, Caprolactum, Alkyl Phenols, Adipic Acid, Plasticizers, etc.
Phenol is also used in the manufacture of preservatives, disinfectants, lubricating oils, herbicides, insecticides, pharmaceuticals, etc.

ACETONE
Acetone is an important commercial solvent and raw material with wide usage in the chemical explosives and lacquer industry. It is commonly used as a solvent for Cellulose Acetate, Nitrocellulose, Celluloid, Cellulose Ether, chlorinated Rubber, various resins, fats and oils and an absorbent for Acetylene Gas. It is being increasingly used in the synthesis of a number of chemicals such as Diacetone Alcohol, Methyl Methacrylate and certain resins, pharmaceuticals and perfumes.

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 50% W/W
Hydrogen Peroxide 50% w/w is an ecofriendly chemical product from HOC Kochi Unit with wide application in Paper and Textile Industries for Bleaching purpose as a substitute for hazardous Chlorine. It is also used in Electronic and metallurgical industries, Effluent Treatment Plants, Sewage Treatment and for removal of Toxic Pollutants from Industrial Gas Streams.



APPLICATIONS
PHENOL PHENOLIC RESINS… Plywood Adhesive
Fibrous Board Adhesive
Laminates
Moulded Plastics
Protective coatings
Foundry Resins
Others
BISPHENOL-A…. Epoxy Resins
Polycarbonate Resins
ALKYL PHENOLS… Lube Oil Additives
Surfactants
Modified Phenolic Resins
Ag. Chemicals
XYLENOLS….
ADIPIC ACID
Polyphenylene Oxide-Resins
SALICYLIC ACID Rubber Additives
Aspirin
CAPROLACTUM Nylon 6
PHENOL PLANT PROCESS BLOCK DIAGRAM
* - Kochi Refineries Ltd




PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Phenol plant
Phenol Complex consists of the following units
Propylene Recovery Unit
Cumene Unit
Phenol Unit
Brief process description of each unit is given below.

Propylene Recovery Unit
The plant is designed by Engineers India Limited to produce two grade of propylene Viz. Lean propylene of 75% purity suitable for the production of Cumene and Chemical grade propylene of 95% purity.
Capacity of the plant
Lean Propylene (75% propylene): 21840 TPA
Chemical grade (95% propylene): 7160 TPA
The process scheme consists of two fractionation columns with the auxiliaries and equipment for the removal of COS (Carbonyl sulphide) as H2S from the hydrocarbon. The first fractionator acts as C3-C4 splitter producing 75% propylene as top product. The second fractionator functions as C3-C3 splitter producing 95% propylene as top product. Propylene from C3-C4 splitter is treated in Caustic/MEA and water washing system to remove the sulphur.

Cumene Unit
This unit is based on UOP’s Catalytic Condensation process. This processing technique utilises a solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalyst to promote the alkylation of benzene with propylene to yield high purity Cumene (isopropyl benzene).
The overall process flow scheme consists of combining benzene with a propane – propylene mixture at select ratio prior to the reaction zone for insurance of maximum product quality and yield. This mixture is then heated and routed to the reaction zone, where the alkylation takes place over a solid phosphoric acid catalyst. The reaction zone effluent then passes through a series of fractionation columns for the rejection of non-reactants; recycle of the unreacted benzene and for the separation of the desired Cumene product from the heavier alkylated product.

Phenol Unit
This unit is based on UOP’s CUMOX process, which is a commercially established Cumene per oxidation process for the economic and efficient production of phenol and acetone.
Capacity
Phenol : 40,000 TPA
Acetone :24,640 TPA
The CUMOX unit has been divided into the following process section

Oxidation Section
This is the first step of synthesis employing the low temperature liquid phase oxidation of Cumene to Cumene hydro peroxide (CHP) in the oxidizers. Oxygen is derived from air and the reaction is carried out in an alkaline environment. The oxidation is a highly exothermic reaction.
Phenol : 40,000 TPA
Acetone :24,640 TPA
Evaporation Section
In this section, CHP is concentrated in two steps from approximately 25-wt % to 80-wt%.
Cleavage Section
Concentrated CHP from the evaporation section is fed into two parallel cleavage reactor circuit along with concentrated sulphuric acid catalyst. Under controlled condition of temperature and acidity, CHP is cleaved to phenol and acetone and byproducts.
Direct Neutralisation & Effluent Treatment Section
This section perform four main functions:
i) Neutralisation of the acid used as catalyst in the cleavage section.
ii) Washing of salts from the organic phase, which results from the neutralization.
iii) Recovery of phenol and acetone from several effluent streams.
iv) Springing of phenol recovered as sodium phenate from the effluent streams.
Fractionation section
This section mainly consists of six columns to separate and purify phenol and acetone and to recover Cumene and AlphaMethylStyrene (AMS).
Hydrogenation Section
The alphamethylstyrene (AMS) is hydrogenated back to Cumene. The reaction is carried out over a fixed bed of catalyst.
Hydrogen peroxide plant
This plant is based on UHDE’s Ethyl Anthraquione process .2-Ethyl anthraquinone (2-EAQ) the effective reactive component is dissolved in mixture of solvent called working solution. It is reduced by hydrogenation using palladium catalyst in the first step and further oxidized to generate Hydrogen peroxide and spring back 2-EAQ.
The hydrogen peroxide generated is extracted from the working solution using demineralised water. The working solution is recycled back to the hydrogenator and the above - mentioned reactions are carried out repeatedly.
The weak hydrogen peroxide (35% concentration) is subjected to vacuum distillation to increase the strength to 50% or 70% as per the requirement.
A small portion of working solution prior to hydrogenation is subjected to chemical treatment to remove or control the accumulation of side reacted products.
The process flow diagram for hydrogen peroxide plant is enclosed as figure.2
H2O2 PLANT PROCESS BLOCK DIAGRAM
Utility Section
The phenol and Hydrogen peroxide plants are provided with these service systems.
Steam system
Cooling water system
General utility system (Nitrogen, electricity, process water etc)
Hydrogen plant 1&2
Captive power plant for power
Tankage system
Refrigerated water for phenol plant
Tempered cooling water for phenol plant
Hot oil system for phenol plant

PRODUCTS’ MAJOR APPLICATIONS
PHENOL
Phenol Formaldehyde Resin
Bisphenol-A
Pharmaceuticals

ACETONE
Solvent
Pharmaceuticals
Bisphenol

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
Bleaching
Environmental Applications

Effluent Treatment Plant
The effluent from different plants is collected in equalization tanks. The combined effluent is then treated by physical, chemical and biological methods.
The treated effluent conforming to the norms specified by Kerala State Pollution Control Board is only let out from the factory.

EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT BLOCK DIAGRAM



RAW MATERIALS

Benzene
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG)